Legal Status

The Legal Status of Parking Space Under Condominium Law

Condominium is a multilevel building which is built in an area that is divided into sections which are structured functionally, whether horizontally or vertically that constitutes as units in which each can be owned and used separate
ly, mainly for housing complemented with common equipment (bagian bersama), common facility (benda bersama) and common land (tanah bersama). Condominium is regulated in the Law Number 20 of 2011 on Condominium (“Law No. 20/2011”).

Land on where the building of Condominium stands is a common land. According to the law, common land is a piece of land used under an undivided common right, which is a Condominium building over it, determined in accordance with the building license.

According to Article 1 point 5 and 6 of Law no. 20/2011 common equipment is part of Condominium that is undividedly owned for common use, in a unified function of a Condominium. The examples of these are foundation, column, wall, floor, block, roof, stair, pipes, electricity system, gas, telecommunication and public area of a Condominium. Then, common facility is defined as a thing that does not form part of a Condominium, but jointly owned undividedly, for common use. The examples of these are park, landscaping, social building, religious building, playground, and parking space which is separated or integrated with the structure of Condominium building. Accordingly, based on the definitions set out above, of parking space is regarded as a common facility .

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Legal Status of a Property over the Right to Manage

Not all land has a pure rights over land. There is a Right to Manage (Hak Pengelolaan Lahan – HPL) over some lands, like in some areas in DKI Jakarta, for example Senayan, Kemayoran, Pulomas, etc.

HPL is not a right over land and is not regulated in the Agrarian Law but it is regulated in the Goverment Regulation No.8 of 1953 on Control Over State Lands and Agrarian Minister Regulation No. 9 of 1965 on the Implementation of the Conversion of Control Over State Lands and Provisions on the Subsequent Policy.

HPL object is agricultural land and non agricultural, whereas the subject or the holder of HPL in general is Provincial Government (“PEMDA”), State-owned Corporation (“BUMN”), and Provincial-owned Corporation (“BUMD”) according to the goverment regulation as referred above.

HPL has no ownership period and is given only on state land controlled by PEMDA, BUMN, and BUMD with the purpose to control zoning and land use, so it is suitable with its zoning plan.

HPL is essentially a right concerning authority as stated in Article 1 paragraph 1 Regulation of the Minister of Domestic Affairs No.1 of 1977 on the Application Procedure and Resolution of Grant of Rights Over Parts of the Right to Manage and its Registration, as follows:
to plan the use of the land;
to use the land for the purpose of implementing its business;
to deliver some parts of the land to the third party, according to the requirement specified by the rights holder company, which includes its purpose, use, time period and financial, provided thatthat the grant of right of the land is conducted by the authorities, in accordance with the applicable laws and regulation.
Some kinds of rights of land such as Right to Build (HGB), Right to Cultivate (“HGU”), Right to Use (“HP”) can be issued over the HPL, but in practice and in accordance with Article 7 paragraph (2) of Law No.16 of 1985 on Condominium, a Right to Build is more often issued over HPL based on the agreement between the holders of HPL and the third party. For example, a Right to Build is issued over HPL with a purpose of building an apartment for residence. Therefore, every Rights to Build granted to third party must be approved by the HPL holder and as long as there is no change of use of a HPL land, then such approval shall be granted to third party. Thus, it is clear that an approval serves as a control function and is not an absolute authority from HPL holders.

Ivan Ari

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